The evolution of head and neck reconstruction

Main Article Content

Sydney Ch'ng
Peter C Neligan


head and neck reconstructive surgery, microsurgery, vascularity of the integument, flap surgery, craniofacial surgery,, tissue engineering, facial vascularised composite allotransplantation


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 42 | PDF Downloads 35


1 Bakamjian VY. A two-stage method for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction with a primary pectoral skin flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1965;36:173–184.
2 Ariyan S. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap: a versatile flap for reconstruction in the head and neck. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979;63(1):73–81.
3 Neidorf A. [A method for forming flaps from the musculus pectoralis major for plastic purposes]. Vestn Khir Im II Grek. 1961;86:3–7.
4 Vesely MJ, Murray DJ, Novak CB, Gullane PJ, Neligan PC. The internal mammary artery perforator flap: an anatomical study and a case report. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;58(2):156–61.
5 Serafin D, Georgiade NG, Peters CR. Microsurgical composite tissue transplantation: a method of immediate reconstruction of the head and neck. Clin Plast Surg. 1976;3(3):447–57.
6 Smith PJ, Foley B, McGregor IA, Jackson IT. The anatomical basis of the groin flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972;49(1):41–47.
7 Daniel RK, Taylor GI. Distant transfer of an island flap by microvascular anastomoses. a clinical technique. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973;52(2):111–17.
8 Mathes SJ, Nahai F. Classification of the vascular anatomy of muscles: experimental and clinical correlation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1981;67(2):177–87.
9 Song R, Gao Y, Song Y, Yu Y, Song Y. The forearm flap. Clin Plast Surg. 1982;9(1):21–26.
10 Wong CH, Wei FC. Anterolateral thigh flap. Head Neck. 2010;32(4):529–40.
11 Taylor GI, Townsend P, Corlett R. Superiority of the deep circumflex iliac vessels as the supply for free groin flaps. clinical work. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979;64(6):745–59.
12 Urken ML, Vickery C, Weinberg H, Buchbinder D, Biller HF. The internal oblique-iliac crest osseomyocutaneous microvascular free flap in head and neck reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg. 1989;5(3):203–14; discussion 215–16.
13 Hidalgo DA. Fibula free flap: a new method of mandible reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;84(1):71–79.
14 Branemark PI, Adell R, Albrektsson T, Lekholm U, Lundkvist S, Rockler B. Osseointegrated titanium fixtures in the treatment of edentulousness. Biomaterials. 1983;4(1):25–28.
15 Ch’ng S, Skoracki RJ, Selber JC, Yu P, Martin JW, Hofstede TM, Chambers MS, Liu J, Hanasono MM. Osseointegrated implant-based dental rehabilitation in head and neck reconstruction patients. Head Neck. 2016;38 Suppl 1:e321–27.
16 Wallace CG, Kao HK, Jeng SF, Wei FC. Free-style flaps: a further step forward for perforator flap surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124 Suppl 6:e419–26.
17 Hofer SO, Posch NA , Smit X. The facial artery perforator flap for reconstruction of perioral defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(4):996–1003; discussion 1004–005.
18 Martin D, Pascal JF, Baudet J, Mondie JM, Farhat JB, Athoum A, Le Gaillard P, Peri G. The submental island flap: a new donor site. Anatomy and clinical applications as a free or pedicled flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92(5):867–73.
19 Fitzgerald O’Connor E, Rozen WM, Chowdhry M, Patel NG, Chow WT, Griffiths M, Ramakrishnan VV. The microvascular anastomotic coupler for venous anastomoses in free flap breast reconstruction improves outcomes. Gland Surg. 2016;5(2):88–92.
20 Smit JM, Klein S, de Jong EH, Zeebregts CJ, de Bock GH, Werker PM. Value of the implantable Doppler system in free flap monitoring. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65(9):1276–277.
21 Smit JM, Zeebregts CJ, Acosta R, Werker PM. Advancements in free flap monitoring in the last decade: a critical review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125(1):177–85.
22 John HE, Niumsawatt V, Rozen WM, Whitaker IS. Clinical applications of dynamic infrared thermography in plastic surgery: a systematic review. Gland Surg. 2016;5(2):122–32.
23 Burnier P, Niddam J, Bosc R, Hersant B, Meningaud JP. Indocyanine green applications in plastic surgery: a review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70(6):814–827.
24 Neligan PC, Boyd JB. Reconstruction of the cranial base defect. Clin Plast Surg. 1995;22(1):71–77.
25 Snyderman C, Kassam AB, Carrau R, Mintz A. Endoscopic reconstruction of cranial base defects following endonasal skull base surgery. Skull Base. 2007;17(1):73–78.
26 Hadad G, Bassagasteguy L, Carrau RL, Mataza JC, Kassam A, Snyderman CH, Mintz A. A novel reconstructive technique after endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches: vascular pedicle nasoseptal flap. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(10):1882–886.
27 Zanation AM, Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Gardner PA, Prevedello DM. Minimally invasive endoscopic pericranial flap: a new method for endonasal skull base reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(1):13–18.
28 Fortes FS, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, Kassam A, Prevedello D, Vescan A, Mintz A, Gardner P. Transpterygoid transposition of a temporoparietal fascia flap: a new method for skull base reconstruction after endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(6):970–76.
29 Karagiannis P, Clark JR, Ch’ng S. The inside-out septal mucoperichondrial flap: reconstruction of nasal lining simplified. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;140(4):644e–645e.
30 Ilizarov GA, Trokhova VG. [Surgical lengthening of the
femur]. Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1973;34(11):51–55.
31 McCarthy JG, Schreiber J, Karp N, Thorne CH, Grayson BH. Lengthening the human mandible by gradual distraction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89(1):1–8; discussion 9–10.
32 Taylor JA, Maugans TA. Comparison of spring-mediated cranioplasty to minimally invasive strip craniectomy and barrel staving for early treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis.
J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22(4):1225–229.
33 Windh P, Davis C, Sanger C, Sahlin P, Lauritzen C. Spring-assisted cranioplasty vs pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis–a long term follow-up study. J Craniofac Surg. 2008;19(1):59–64.
34 Clauser LC, Tieghi R, Galiè M, Carinci F. Structural fat grafting: facial volumetric restoration in complex reconstructive surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22(5):1695–701.
35 Coleman SR. Structural fat grafting: more than a permanent filler. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118 Suppl 3:108s–120s.
36 Harii K, Ohmori K, Torii S. Free gracilis muscle transplantation, with microneurovascular anastomoses for the treatment of facial paralysis. A preliminary report. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1976;57(2):133–43.
37 Coleman CC, Walker JC. Technic of anastomosis of the branches of the facial nerve with the spinal accessory for facial paralysis. Ann Surg. 1950;131(6):960–68.
38 Zuker RM, Manktelow RT. A smile for the Mobius’ syndrome patient. Ann Plast Surg. 1989;22(3):188–94.
39 Watanabe Y, Akizuki T, Ozawa T, Yoshimura K, Agawa K, Ota T. Dual innervation method using one-stage reconstruction with free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for re-animation of established facial paralysis: simultaneous reinnervation of the ipsilateral masseter motor nerve and the contralateral facial nerve to improve the quality of smile and emotional facial expressions. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62(12):1589–597.
40 Catapano J, Demsey DR, Ho ES, Zuker RM, Borschel GH. Cross-face nerve grafting with infraorbital nerve pathway protection: anatomic and histomorphometric feasibility study. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2016;4(9):e1037.
41 Koshima I, Narushima M, Mihara M, Uchida G, Nakagawa M. Fascicular turnover flap for nerve gaps. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010;63(6):1008–014.
42 Terzis JK, Dryer MM, Bodner BI. Corneal neurotization: a novel solution to neurotrophic keratopathy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123(1):112–20.
43 Kernan BT, Wimsatt JA 3rd. Use of a stereolithography model for accurate, preoperative adaptation of a reconstruction plate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58(3):349–51.
44 Antony AK, Chen WF, Kolokythas A, Weimer KA, Cohen MN. Use of virtual surgery and stereolithography-guided osteotomy for mandibular reconstruction with the free fibula. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(5):1080–084.
45 Urken ML, Buchbinder D, Weinberg H, Vickery C, Sheiner A, Biller HF. Primary placement of osseointegrated implants in microvascular mandibular reconstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;101(1):56–73.
46 Levine JP, Bae JS, Soares M, Brecht LE, Saadeh PB, Ceradini DJ, Hirsch DL. Jaw in a day: total maxillofacial reconstruction using digital technology. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131(6):1386–391.
47 Weinstein GS, O’Malley BW Jr, Snyder W, Sherman E, Quon H. Transoral robotic surgery: radical tonsillectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(12):1220–226.
48 Leonhardt FD, Quon H, Abrahão M, O’Malley BW Jr, Weinstein GS. Transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal carcinoma and its impact on patient-reported quality of life and function. Head Neck. 2012;34(2):146–54.
49 Longfield EA, Holsinger FC, Selber JC. Reconstruction after robotic head and neck surgery: when and why. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2012;28(7):445–50.
50 Garreta E, Oria R, Tarantino C, Pla-Roca M, Prado P, Fernández-Avilés F, Campistol JM, Samitier J, Montserrat N. Tissue engineering by decellularization and 3D bioprinting. Materials Today. 2017;20(4):166–78.